April 8, 2020
Digital Analytics Fundamentals – Lesson 4.4 Setting up goals and ecommerce

Digital Analytics Fundamentals – Lesson 4.4 Setting up goals and ecommerce

In this lesson we’ll talk about tracking macro
and micro conversions in Google Analytics. We do this using a feature called “Goals.” We’ll walk through how Goals are set up and
then have you practice on your own test account. Just a note – we’re going to walk through
creating Goals for a website, not an app. But the app process is very similar. Setting up Goals in Google Analytics is one
of the most important parts of implementation. Goals are the way that we map the data in
Google Analytics to the key performance indicators that you
defined in your measurement plan. Anytime you think of conversions, you should
think about “macro conversions” and “micro conversions”. Macro conversions are your primary business
objectives. Micro conversions are the relationship building
activities that lead up to a macro conversion. As an example, for our fictional outdoor company,
the macro conversion is to sell products. A related micro conversion could be a sign-up
for a promotional newsletter. When a user signs up for a newsletter it’s
an indicator that she wants to stay connected. It gives us, as a business, an opportunity
to continue to market to the user and hopefully convert her into a customer. Once you enable Goals, you get metrics like
the number conversions and the conversion rate. These metrics are always available in the
Conversion section of your standard reports. But you can also find these metrics in almost
every other report in Google Analytics. This is useful because the reports allow you
to segment your conversion data. For example, if you look at the conversion
rate metrics in the Traffic Sources report you can instantly see which marketing channels
drive the most value for your business. Now let’s talk about the specific features
of Google Analytics Goals. Goals are configured at the view level. That means you can create different Goals
for each view. There are four types of Goals. Each Goal is slightly different to set up,
but they all do the same thing — they track conversions on your website or
in your app. First let’s talk about Goals that track user
actions. A destination Goal is a page on your website
that users see when they complete an activity. For an account sign-up, this might be the
“thank you for signing up” page. For a purchase this might be the receipt page. A destination Goal triggers a conversion when
a user views the page you’ve specified. If you’re setting up a Goal for an app, you’d
set up a screen view Goal rather than a destination Goal. The second type of Goal you can use to track
a user action is an Event Goal. This kind of Goal is triggered when a user
does something specific like downloading a PDF or starting a video. You need to have Event Tracking implemented
on your website in order to use this type of Goal. The last two types of Goals can be used to
measure user engagement. Engagement can be measured based on the amount
of content that people see or the amount of time that they spend on your
site. A Pages per Visit Goal is triggered when a
user sees more or fewer pages than a threshold that you specify. A Time on Site Goal is triggered when a user’s
visit exceeds or falls below a threshold that you set. Let’s talk through how to set up a destination
Goal for a website. When you select “Destination” as the Goal
type, you specify the Goal page. You don’t have to enter the entire URL for
the page. Just enter the request URI – that’s what comes
after the domain or hostname. So, if the complete URL is myoutdoorstore.com/confirmation.html, you only need to enter /confirmation.html. Make sure that the URI corresponds to a page
that the user only sees once they complete the conversion activity. So, pick something like the “Thank You” page
or a confirmation page for your Goal. You can also enter a name for the Goal, like
“Completed Order.” This name will appear in your reports. When you set up a destination Goal, you have
three choices for the Match Type option: Equals, Begins with, and Regular Expression The Begins with match type indicates that
the page URI must begin with what you specified as the Goal URI. So, if you specify “/thankyou” as your Goal, any page URI that begins with “/thankyou”
will count as a conversion. For example, visits to “/thankyou.html” or
“/thankyou.php” would both count as a Goal conversion. “Begins with” provides flexibility with limited
complexity. It works to track most destination Goals. The Equals match type means that the URI of
the page visited must exactly match what you enter for the
Goal. In contrast to Begins With, which can be used
to match multiple versions of a URI, an Exact Match only matches one single URI. The Regular Expression match type gives you
the most flexibility, but requires you have expertise in Regular
Expressions. For example, if you want to count different
pages, all with different URIs as a Goal, you can create a regular expression pattern that will give Google Analytics the set of
rules to match any of these URIs. To learn more about Regular Expressions, check
out the resources in this lesson. Another part of the Goal setup process is
the verification tool. This simple tool let’s you quickly test your
Goal settings before completing the process. Just click the “Verify this Goal” link and
Google Analytics will give you an expected conversion rate for this Goal, based on your settings, for the last 7 days. If the conversion rate seems too high or too
low then there’s probably an issue with your settings. The “Goal Value” field allows you to specify
a monetary value for a Goal. This is really useful because Google Analytics
will interpret the Goal value as actual revenue. By setting a Goal value, you make it possible
for Google Analytics to calculate metrics like advertising ROI
and average per visit value. These metrics will help you measure the monetary
value of a non-ecommerce site. If you’re having trouble calculating a Goal
value think about how much each user action, or
Goal conversion, is worth to your business. Let’s say your website generates sales leads. If your sales team closes sales on 10% of
the leads, and your average transaction is $500, you might assign $50 or 10% of $500 to your
Goal value. For each destination Goal that you create,
you can also set up a funnel. A funnel is the defined process that you expect
users to complete prior to conversion. A sales checkout process is a good example
of a funnel. To complete a transaction, the user must add
items to a cart, enter shipping information, and submit payment
information. To define a funnel, you specify the pages
leading up to the Goal. Notice that there is no match type for the
funnel steps. Google Analytics uses the same match type
that you used for the Goal page. You can also provide a name for each step
in the funnel, which will show in your reports. Defining a funnel is valuable, because it
allows you to see where users enter and exit your define process. Using the Goal Flow report you can identify
where users might be having issues with an important step. For example, if you notice that many of your
users never go further than the shipping information page, you might focus on redesigning that page so
that it’s simpler. Knowing where customers drop off during the
process allows you to eliminate bottlenecks and create
a more efficient conversion path. In addition to conversion metrics, setting
up Goals also activates the Multi-Channel Funnels reports. These reports show you the path a user took
toward conversion across multiple visits to your site. Conversion path data is generated for each
Goal conversion and ecommerce transaction recorded by Google Analytics. If your site sells products or services online,
you can also use Google Analytics ecommerce reporting to track sales activity and performance. The ecommerce reports show you transactions,
revenue, and many other commerce-related metrics. Some examples of the kind of information you
can get from the ecommerce reports include the products that were purchased from your
online store, a list of transactions, and the number of times people visited your
site before purchasing. In order to use ecommerce reporting, you need
to do the following three things. First, enable ecommerce reporting within your
Analytics website view. Second, add the Google Analytics Tracking
Code to your receipt page or “Transaction Complete” page. Finally, add some additional ecommerce tracking
code to your receipt page so that you can capture the details of each
transaction. Your development team needs to be involved
with this set-up process. Please refer to the resources in this lesson
to find more details on how to implement ecommerce tracking. If you do use ecommerce tracking in Google
Analytics, there is an important difference between Goal
conversions and ecommerce transactions that you should be aware of. A Goal conversion can only be counted once
during a visit, but an ecommerce transaction can be counted
multiple times during a visit. Here’s an example. Let’s say that you set one of your Goals to
be a PDF download and you define it such that any PDF download
is a valid Goal conversion. And let’s also say that the Goal is worth
$5. In this case, if a user comes to your site
and downloads five PDF files during a single session, you’ll only get one conversion worth $5. However, if you were to track each of these
downloads as a $5 ecommerce transaction, you would see five transactions and $25 in
ecommerce revenue. One more thing about Goals and ecommerce transactions. As a best practice, you should only add a
Goal value for non-ecommerce Goals. The reason is that Goal value is cumulative. If you add a Goal value, and you track transactions
with the ecommerce tracking code Google Analytics will add the value of the
transaction to the value of the Goal. Now it’s your turn to try setting up a Goal
in your test account. Follow the instructions in this lesson to
complete your Goal set-up.

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